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共产主义注定失败的十五项理由
(Publish Date: 2010-5-4 9:46pm, Total Visits: 2223, Today: 2, This Week: 4, This Month: 9)

南郭点评:一个人20岁相信马克思主义是聪明的,30岁相信老马则已明显落伍,40岁仍信马克思肯定是既无知又弱智,50岁以上仍坚信马克思共产主义,必定属智力低下,极度无知且严重缺乏道德别有用心之徒!

 

 

郭国汀编译

 

有许多原因使共产主义注定失败

 

共产主义必定败亡的原因之一乃是其创设的中央计划经济体制;由于完全控制工业是共产主义的主要观念,因此有必要创设一个管理所有这些工业的高效中央经济体制。共产主义的问题在于从数学上和物理上均不可能以中央形式管理所有的工业。[1]

 

共产主义之所以失败是因为管理工业与资源之间复杂关系的物理上的不可能。在真实意义上,共产主义寻求将所有的收入平均分配。选择不工作的人们仍然收到该收入的平等分额。勤奋工作在共产主义社会中无关紧要,因为你的收入将与那些懒惰者同等。工作勤奋或加时工作并不能获得奖励,这必然导致人民变得懒惰与缺乏动力更没有创造力。缺乏激励是共产主义在所有共产党国家失败的一项重要因素。[2]

 

共产主义假设所有的人类都是好的,受到良好激励的,拥有平等的能力及动力。这种对待人民的平等的共产主义观念是导致其失败的另一因素。在政治学中,假定所有的人均是好的,意味着没有必要进行制约与平衡。这种缺乏制约与平衡最终将导致滥用所有的权力,权力被全部集中于共产党当权者手中。在共产主义下,源于工业的所有的钱和收入均成为国家财产,实质上则必将变成当权者的财产。[3]

共产主义失败的原因乃是其试图完成对人类本性进行不可能的控制任务。共产主义试图创设一个统一人民的社会来控制个人主义。人类具有千差万别各自不同的个体思想,永远不可能用任何手段,通过共产主义对人类实现完全控制。[4]

 

共产主义失败是因为其将人类思想依赖于他们的意识形态。人类的思想是自由的和独立的,唯一使得共产主义意识形态获得依赖的方式乃是通过强制过程。人民被强制接受共产主义意识形态,结果导致因为人们有不同的意见和观念,便被残忍的屠杀和群体灭绝。那些异议者及质疑共产主义者,皆被屠杀或关入古拉格、集中营、劳改营或劳教所,但是疑问和寻找新的和更佳的途径是人的天性。[5]

 

共产主义失败是由于它是暴政。在共产主义下,人民没有思想、言论、出版、结社、信仰自由;人民被迫屈从于国家,而非国家服从于人民的意志。[6]

 

共产主义失败是因为马克思全部所作所为创立的一个乌托邦社会应当如何及怎样运作的理论。马克思从未提供共产主义如何实际管理的学说,他也未预见到中产阶级的堀起,误断工人阶级将持续贫困化,而仅奠定他的基于上层阶级和下层阶级的共产主义意识形态。共产主义依赖于一种奖励生产产品数量远胜于产品质量的制度。[7]

共产主义之所以失败是因为来自全球共同体的极端压力。资本主义国家坚决反对共产主义导致了冷战局面。由此原因,共产主义国家不得不将其绝大多数资源用于扩充武器。这进一步削弱了他们本来就已脆弱不堪的经济,从而人民的生活水准必定受到严重影响。[8]

 

共产主义失败是由于赋予国家负责所有的生产的原则,造成位居共产党社会高位的当权者变得对控制生产手段负有责任。而这些当权者往往是根本不懂经济的外行,其必然瞎指挥浪费的挥霍资源人力财力物力等劳民伤财的举措不可避免。[9]

 

共产主义灭亡是因为它阻碍了人民的发明创造力。重大刺激通常能激发人民在工作中的创造性。对如何有效地生产的不同观念,是由那些期望在资本主义国家获得利益得到提升的人民创造形成的。而共产主义极大地消除了任何发明创造的欲望,因为缺乏激励机制,发明创造并不能给人带来更多的收入,也就不可能有动力,即便他们对工作贡献再多,个人所得确是相同的。[10]

 

共产主义失败还由于它消除了在努力生产与报酬之间相应对价反馈。理论上的“多劳多得,按劳分配”的所谓社会主义分配原则,与实际中的有权就有一切的共产党官僚特权体制格格不入;而所谓“各尽所能,按需分配” 的共产主义分配原则,只需略加思考便可断定纯属胡说八道的痴心妄想。因为人类的智力能力与创造发明力相差十万八千里,而人类的贪欲无穷,贪婪、妒忌、懒惰、自私其实是人类的天性。人类的欲望是无穷的,而社会财富的基础乃自然地理物质环境资源却是有限的,无穷的欲望与有限的资源的矛盾则是永恒的,因此共产主义永远只是不切实际的空想。[11]

 

共产主义失败是由于它不能奖励那些超常生产和天才者,也未能处罚那些落后懒惰的生产者。奖惩不公与处罚不平一样同属不公不义,而不公不义的社会永远不可能公正正义平等可言。共产主义社会实质上皆将社会真正道德高尚的社会精英,摧残一空,同时那些仅是善于搞阴谋、使诡计、玩厚黑、耍流氓道德堕落不学无术之辈却能在共产主义体制下如鱼得水游刃有余。因此,共产主义社会导致人人精神萎靡不振,道德低下,创造力贫乏,经济文化落后是必然的。[12]

 

共产主义未能考虑财富并非统计的而是创造的。通过将财富从创造者夺走分配给那些并非创造它们也不值得及不知道如何使用该财富的人,共产主义也就毁坏了创造财富的母机和源泉。[13]

 

最后,共产主义失败还在于它植入共产主义社会的人民不是为其自已的利益而工作,而是为社会的利益而工作的根本原则;在于其各尽所能按需分配的原则;这种共产主义制度极大地有利于那些有许多需求但却没有能力或能力十分有限的懒惰的人们。简言之,共产主义是一种如果在任何政府实施而注定失败的观念。[14]

 

 



[1] One factor is that communism failed in creating a centralized economy. Since complete control over industries is one of the main ideals of communism, it is important to have an efficient centralized economy that will manage all these industries. The problem with communism is that it is mathematically and physically impossible to manage all the industries from a centralized form.

 

[2] Communism failed because the physical impossibility of managing the complex relationships of industry and resources. Communism, in its true sense, seeks to it that all income are distributed equally. People who choose not to work will still receive their equal share of the income. Working harder will not matter in the communist society since your income will be equal to people who work less. There is nothing to achieve by working harder or longer and this will cause people to become unmotivated and idle. The lack of incentive is one of the factors that communism failed in all communist nations.

 

[3] Communism assumes that all humans are basically good, well-motivated, and possess equal capabilities and motivation (Capitalism, Socialism & Communism). This egalitarian view of communism towards the people is another factor for its failure. In politics, assuming that all men are basically good means that there is no need for checks and balances. This absence of checks and balances would eventually result to the abuse of power with all rights and power to be concentrated in the hands of those in power. In communism, all the money and income from industries becomes the property of the state - in this effect, the income would become the property of those in power.

 

[4] Communism failed because it was trying to attempt an impossible task of controlling the nature of human beings. Humans have the tendency of individualism. Communism tried to control individualism by creating a society of inherently individual people uniform (The Socialist Myth. 1999). Humans also have their own individual thoughts which can never be controlled fully by any means even through communism.

 

[5] Communism failed because it was dependent on the compliance of human thoughts to their ideology. Human thoughts are free and independent and the only way to achieve compliance to the communist ideology is through the process of coercion. People were forced to accept communist ideologies which resulted in a lot of killings and massacres because of the differences of opinions and ideas. Those who differ in opinions and who question communism were either killed or sent to Gulags, since it is simply human nature to ask questions and to look for new and better alternatives.

 

[6] Communism failed because it was tyrannical. People, under communism, were submissive to the state, rather than the state should be submissive to the demands of the people.

 

[7] Communism failed because all Karl Marx did was to create a theory of what a Utopian society should be like and how it should work. Marx never provided a doctrine on how communism should be actually managed. Marx also did not anticipate the rise of the middle class and only based his communist ideology on the upper class and the lower class. Communism depended on a system that rewarded quantity over quality in terms of production.

 

[8] Communism failed because of the extreme pressure from the global community. Countries that rule through capitalism bitterly opposed communism which led to the Cold War situation. Because of this, communist countries had to divert most of their resources towards arms build-up. This further weakened their already weak economy.

 

[9] Communism failed because the principle which gives the state the ownership of production caused individuals that are placed in the high positions of the communist society to become responsible in controlling the means of production.

 

[10] Communism failed because it hinders creativity and innovativeness of the people. Great incentives usually bring about the creativity of people in the workplace. Different ideas on how to produce efficiently are formed by people who would like to be promoted in a capitalist nation. Communism eliminates the possibility of earning more income than others as an incentive therefore people do not strive to gain popularity for coming up with bright ideas since they would get the same income even if they do not contribute that much to the workplace.

 

[11] Communism failed because it removed the feedback loop between effort and reward.

 

[12] Communism failed to reward those that excel in terms of production and ingenuity and failed to punish those that lag behind and are unproductive.

 

[13] Communism failed to take account that wealth is not static and is created. By taking away wealth from its creators and giving it to those that did not create it, don't deserve and don't know what to do with it, communism destroyed the very engines that create wealth.

 

[14] Finally, communism failed because of its underlying principle that the people should work not for their own benefit but only for the benefit of the society. The principle of "from each according to his ability; to each according to his need" was instilled in the communist society. This communist system greatly benefited the lazy people who has much need but had little ability. SUMMARY All in all, communism was an idea that was doomed to fail if practiced by any government.